Other causes of infarto acute of the myocardium enclose the nip or sudden constriction of a coronary artery, the suppliment of diminished oxygen (former: acute sanguineous loss) and the demand increased for the oxygen (former: ingestion of cocaine). 2,2 Same INCIDENCE that the mortality associated with cardiac and vascular problems has diminished 25% since the decade of 1970, the cardiovascular illness still is the threat most serious of the life and the health in the United States. For the men, the estimate is of 1 in 3; for women is of 1 in 10 (HUDAK and GALLO, 1997). To each year, 1.500.000 people suffer one infarto acute from the myocardium (THEY WENT), that she leads around 540.400 deaths. By more important that they seem the mortality statisticians, an advance was made diagnosiss in it, therapeutical orientation and to fight the cardiovascular illness. The nurse in intensive cares presented main paper in the reduction of the mortality associated with cardiopathy (HUDAK and GALLO, 1997). 2,3 FACTORS OF RISK In accordance with Hudak and Gallo (1997), a study of Massachusets at the beginning of the decade of 1950, identified five factors of risk for cardiac illnesses.
During this study of great random population, they had observed some factors that increase the trend of an individual for cardiac illness. The main identified factors had been the high sanguineous cholesterol level, the cigarette tobacco, the obesidade, the hipertenso and the sedentary life. Other factors can increase the development of the coronariopatia. These factors relate with the independence of the cardiac illness, but not with its gravity. 2.3.1 ACUTE TOBACCOISM and INFARTO OF the MYOCARDIUM For Smeltzer and Bare (2005) the tobaccoism helps to contribute for the development and gravity of the coronariana arterial illness, mainly infarto acute of the myocardium, three ways. In first place, the inhalation of smoke increases the sanguineous level of carbon monoxide, and makes with that the hemoglobina, the component that transposed oxygen in the blood, if combines more immediately with the carbon monoxide that with the oxygen.